This master of difficult terrain has found a home in all parts of the Northern hemisphere, being comfortable both in damp areas at the edge of a river, marsh or on the side of a rocky cliff at high altitude. Grows well even in poor soils. Grey brown bark can have a reddish hue. Glossy leaves with a deep ribbing give off a rich clean smell on a summer’s night. These trees can shape themselves as a tall single tree or form into a low growing colony joined by root runners. Male and female catkins can appear on separate trees or on different branches of the same tree. Nitrogen fixing nodules on the roots make this a good choice for those working to remediate exhausted locations, (a friendlier option to prickly black locust). Can be coppiced and branches used as feed for livestock or for kindling.